geographical annotations to

Ainsworth, William, 'Notes on a journey from Kaïsaríyah, by Malátíyah, to Bir or Birehjik, in May and June, 1839'

19th century sources

website of Jelle Verheij, historian


Satellite view of Rumkale (Google Earth) (click on the image to expand)

Samosata → Şamşat. This place was flooded by the Atatürk Dam Lake; the name was transferred to a new settlement nearby, presently the centre of Şamşat district of Adıyaman province

I'z O'ghlú → İzolu, Kuşsarayı (village in Baskil district, Elazığ province, on the Euphrates, east of Malatya

Shiró → Doğanyol (centre of Doğanyol district, Malatya province)

Rúm Ḳal'ah → Rumkale, castle on a prom0ntory in the Euphrates, north of Halfeti (Şanlıurfa province). The castle lies within the borders of Gaziantep province (see photo below)