geographical annotations to

Ainsworth, William, 'Notes on a journey from Kaïsaríyah, by Malátíyah, to Bir or Birehjik, in May and June, 1839'


19th century sources

website of Jelle Verheij, historian

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Satellite view of Rumkale (Google Earth) (click on the image to expand)

Samosata → Şamşat. This place was flooded by the Atatürk Dam Lake; the name was transferred to a new settlement nearby, presently the centre of Şamşat district of Adıyaman province

I'z O'ghlú → İzolu, Kuşsarayı (village in Baskil district, Elazığ province, on the Euphrates, east of Malatya

Shiró → Doğanyol (centre of Doğanyol district, Malatya province)

Rúm Ḳal'ah → Rumkale, castle on a prom0ntory in the Euphrates, north of Halfeti (Şanlıurfa province). The castle lies within the borders of Gaziantep province (see photo below)